Brawling weights in Villains and Vigilantes
Villains and Vigilantes uses realworld weights for determining damage when throwing nonweapons. Thrown rocks do damage according to how much they weigh and how fast they’re going.
I personally find it difficult to visualize how much a rock or slab of cement will weigh. What does a 6inch diameter rock weigh? What about a twofoot diameter rock?
The way to determine the weight of something is to multiply its density by its volume. The more dense something is the more it weighs, and the bigger it is the more it weighs.
Densities are almost always given in grams per cubic centimeter, or g/cc. Grams and cubic centimeters are pretty small; your superhero isn’t likely to be tossing pebbles at the villains very often. Grams per cubic centimeter, if you choose to do the math, can be multiplied by 1,000 to get kilograms per cubic meter.
However, Villains and Vigilantes uses the English system of pounds and inches and feet. It will probably be easiest to convert this to pounds per cubic foot. Convert kilograms to pounds by multiplying by 2.2. Convert “per cubic meter” to “per cubic foot” by dividing by 3.28 cubed, or 35.3. Thus, multiply grams per cubic centimeter by 62 to get pounds per cubic foot.
Lots of rocks are relatively round. It’s easy to imagine the size of a rock by way of its diameter. The volume of a spherical object is fourthirds times Pi times the cube of the radius; radius is half of diameter.
In general, if you know a brawling weapon’s density in grams per cubic centimeter, and what its approximate diameter in inches would be if it were spherical, you can multiply the density of the material by the cube of the item’s diameter in inches, and divide by 53, to get its weight in pounds.
Which leads us to a table of diameters to weights:
6 in  9 in  1 ft  1 ft 3 in  1 ft 6 in  1 ft 9 in  2 ft  2 ft 3 in  2 ft 6 in  2 ft 9 in  3 ft  

concrete (2.3 g/cc)  9 lbs  32 lbs  75 lbs  147 lbs  253 lbs  402 lbs  600 lbs  855 lbs  1173 lbs  1561 lbs  2026 lbs 
marble (2.5 g/cc)  10 lbs  34 lbs  82 lbs  159 lbs  275 lbs  437 lbs  653 lbs  929 lbs  1275 lbs  1697 lbs  2203 lbs 
granite (2.7 g/cc)  11 lbs  37 lbs  88 lbs  172 lbs  297 lbs  472 lbs  705 lbs  1004 lbs  1377 lbs  1832 lbs  2379 lbs 
basalt (2.9 g/cc)  12 lbs  40 lbs  95 lbs  185 lbs  319 lbs  507 lbs  757 lbs  1078 lbs  1479 lbs  1968 lbs  2555 lbs 
iron (7.9 g/cc)  32 lbs  109 lbs  258 lbs  504 lbs  870 lbs  1382 lbs  2062 lbs  2936 lbs  4028 lbs  5361 lbs  6960 lbs 
So, if The Tenth Saint hurls a twofoot diameter marble ball, that ball weighs 653 pounds. It will do 1d8 points damage at +2 to hit.^{1} Since The Tenth Saint can lift 1,223 pounds he can toss it 57 inches^{2}; so the total damage (if he hits) will be 1d8+1d4. If he had found a slightly smaller piece of marble, he would have thrown it a few inches faster and his damage would increase to 1d8+1d8!
 October 23, 2011: Villains and Vigilantes falling damage off the charts

Can someone explain Villains and Vigilantes falling damage? I can’t be reading it correctly.
Falling speed seems to make sense. It is calculated per turn rather than per second, which makes things easier to calculate at heights lower than 500 feet, but that’s a decent abstraction.
Damage, however, is wacky as described.
Background
For background, the average human has about 40 power points and 4 hit points. That means 8 points of damage will knock them unconscious^{1} and 44 points of damage will kill them. A large bomb will knock the average person unconscious (21 points average, from 2d20) but not kill them. A small nuclear bomb will kill the average person (53 points average, from 5d20).
A large nuclear bomb will kill just about anybody, doing 20d20 points damage for an average of 210 points.
Given comic book physics this makes sense. Bombs throw heroes around, knock some of them unconscious, and leave a few conscious to survey the carnage.
Falling damage
Falling damage is in another league altogether. Damage taken is the distance fallen during the last turn (fifteen seconds), in “inches”, where a V&V inch is five feet, times the square root of the character’s basic hits^{2}. Falling off of a 500foot building will mean 100 points damage times 2 (the square root of basic hits) for 200 points damage.
That’s a large nuclear explosion. But it gets worse: if you have size change to small and you’re down to a quarter inch, you multiply by your height factor of 288 for a total damage of 57,600 points.^{3} That can’t be right. What am I missing?
Falling from an airplane has crazier numbers. Depending on height fallen, the height number will be anywhere from a hundred (as in the above example) to a thousand (terminal velocity in Villains and Vigilantes). Two thousand points damage for falling ensures death, even if you’re lucky enough to share it with the ground. That’s five large nuclear bombs.^{4}
A solution
The thing is, there is already a system in Villains and Vigilantes for damage from highspeed impacts. Brawling weapons do damage based on both weight and velocity. Assume that falling means maximum damage, and falling from 500 feet does 12 points damage, ensuring unconsciousness for the average person. Terminal velocity means 44 points damage, killing the average person.
See page 27 of Villains and Vigilantes 2.1 for the brawling weights and projectile velocity damage bonuses.
↑For those unfamiliar, an “inch” in Villains and Vigilantes is a miniatures measurement that corresponds to five feet.
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 Common Rock Densities
 “The rock densities in the table below are expressed as specific gravity, which is the density of the rock relative to the density of water.”
 Density of Concrete
 “Concrete is an artificial material similar to stone that is used for many different structural purposes. It is made by mixing several different coarse aggregates such as sand and pebbles with water and cement and then allowing it to harden by hydration.”
 Density Reference Article
 A list of densities for various elements.
 Wood Densities
 “The density of seasoned & dry wood are indicated in the table below.”
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 Villains and Vigilantes falling damage off the charts
 Can someone explain Villains and Vigilantes falling damage? I can’t be reading it correctly. Falling speed seems to make sense. It is calculated per turn rather than per second, which makes things easier to calculate at heights lower than 500 feet, but that’s a decent abstraction.
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The densities used in the table are midpoint between the normal density range for that material, except for iron, which is an element.